Sunday, July 29, 2012


Taylor Speer-Sims
July 18, 2012

Palladio’s Country Palaces

            Andrea Palladio learned the art of architecture from the ground up beginning his career as a stonemason. Here he learned how to stones were hewn to perfect right angles, which had been beneficial to him when he began building large villas and palazzos. Palladio studied ancient Roman architecture like no other architect had before him. He discovered that the art of versatility in design, formatting and use. There had been other brilliant architects during the Renaissance. However, none were able to design like Palladio. No other famous architect of the Renaissance had been able to change the design of the house to suit the property due to its environment.

Andrea Palladio was one of history’s most influential architects for the nobility of the west. Born in Padua in 1508 he had been named Andrea di Pietro della Gondola.  Palladio’s father, who had been a miller and had wanted more for his son, apprenticed him out as a stonemason.[1] Palladio broke his contract after only 18 months at thirteen years of age by running off to Vicenza to basically do the same thing.[2]  Palladio worked as a stonemason for the famous workshop of Pedimuro in Vicenza until he was thirty years old. Palladio created portals, funerary monuments and alters in the style of Sanmicheli. It is here where he, assumably, began to experiment in the profession of draughtsman.[3] 

At this time he became the assistant architect for the home of Gian Giorgio Trissino, who had been a leading humanist scholar of the time.[4] Here Palladio learned classical studies, including classical literature and architecture. Under Trissino, Palladio met many of the people that later became his patrons. Here, too, had been where he had received the name that has followed him throughout history. The name of the great architect became Andrea Palladio after a character in Trissino’s epic poem “L’Italia Liberata dai Goti”. [5] 

The heroic epics had been a fashion from antiquity that had found a new sense of being in the Renaissance. Trissino had been one very famous poet that brought the idea of heroic deeds to life through his words. The poem that Palladio had been named after had been a fitting because it described “a classicizing palatial courtyard, expatiating on the proportions and details of its classical columns.”[6] 6  Both Trissino and Palladio had both been interested in palazzos forms from ancient Rome, so to have been named such after a character that romped in such an ancient styled courtyard, had certainly been fitting.

Renaissance art had also found itself a new love in the ancient world of Rome. Humanist interest in the Greeks and Romans brought interest in education and moral responsibility. They also had a belief in individual potential and even encouraged individual achievement.[7]  The artist, whether painter or sculptor, had a concern with “developing perspectival systems and depicting anatomy accurately…”[8] Forms and formulations had begun to take hold to create the perfect balance. The Humanist artist brought the ancient art into the contemporary world because it had been lost somehow in the medieval period.[9]

Ancient Rome had plenty of villas and palaces for the Renaissance architects to study. Vitruvius described three fundamental constituents of all architecture from the antiquity that followed through the Middle Ages. This treatise stated that the colonnade originated from the columns from the wooden posts that held up the construction of the basic hut of primitive man. The Doric order imitated the “proportion of a man’s body, its strength and grace, the Ionic feminine slenderness, and the Corinthian the slight dimensions of a virgin girl.”[10]   Later the Tuscan order and Italian (also called Composite) came into use.[11]

The ideals of the styles of ancient architecture had been thought to have been relational to the structure from which it originated. Body types were represented by orders, and pagan gods.[12] Churches popped up everywhere in Italy after the year 1,000 AD. There had been no drastic style changes, even with this great building of new worship houses. Byzantine and Romanesque style had still been the popular building characteristics until the Gothic style came into vogue. This, however, had remained more popular in the north than in Polladio’s native Italy.[13]

Interestingly there had been slight changes to housing, some with severe exteriors, high gothic exteriors with fancy tracery and fortifications.[14] Palazzo Medici had been one palazzo that had been set in a pattern with rigidity and sobriety to create a sense of the forbidden.[15]  The Palazzo Loredan-Vendramin was created in an Italianate style, yet the top two floors had double-arched windows with a circle window sitting in the abutment. Small gothic tracery was set in the windows to resemble the quatrefoils of the Northern Gothic.[16] The Palazzo Venzia had been conceived for the Pope’s palace.[17] This was a veritable fortress style  palace that resembled an Italian castle of the Middle Ages. There had been no fear of attach from marauders, so there had been many more windows than the older citadels that had been actual strongholds. Towers had acquired an association with luxury during the Middle Ages, and this lasted into the Renaissance for many architects.[18]

Luxury was what all of the Renaissance architects had wanted for his wealthy clients. Bramante had not been an exception. He came to Rome at the when the Pope had plunged the papal state into the worst crises that it had gone through. He had commissions almost immediately to revitalize many of the churches. He also received a contract to reconstruct  the old Roman residence, for Aurelio Caprini, who had been a curial official. This was later to be named Palazzo Caprini. This was to have been a two-story palace due to the latest papal decree on ostentation. However, Bramante still added the third story to accommodate the Italianate trend of palaces. And, because his patron could not acquire the necessary property to create the full size, Bramante built the palazzo as a fragmentary piece.[19] Even though a master architect, Bramante tried to fulfill his original design, based on the old Roman palace without changing the size of the building even though there had been considerably less land to build on.

Raphael had also been interested in beautiful real estate. The son of the Duke of Urbino’s court painter, Giovanni Santi. Raphael grew up in Urbino’s court, and had unequivocal access to not only paintings, but also architectural drawings. Apprenticed to Perugino, Raphael became the prized student. Here he learned about to use halls with vaulted ceilings. And, he used the ducal palace of Urbino for his basis on loggias and upper stories of his creations.[20]

Michelangelo had been a force to be reckoned with when he decided to turn to architecture. The three palazzos, Palazzo dei Senatori, Palazzo dei Censervatori and the Piazza del Campidoglio were built within an old Roman square. The Piazza del Campidoglio had been in “dismal condition” when he received the commission.[21] The Palazzo dei Censervatori had fallen into ruins, yet he had been able to recreate the structure using “giant Corinthian Order[s]”.[22] He used his own signature systematic style of the flat roof for all three of the palazzos.[23]

Two examples of Michele Sanmicheli’s palazzos indicate that not even another great stonemason had the foresight to work out of the standardization practices. Just as Palladio, Sanmicheli had been a stonemason for many years before his foray into the architectural field. Palazzo Canossa followed the same interior layout as Palazzo Pucci. The sequence of vestibulum, atrium, peristylium, and cavaedium remained, along with the inclusion of the courtyard that extended to the riverbank.

This religious following of plans had been true to the point of detriment to the balance of symmetry to Palazzo Bevilacqua. The Palazzo’s designs had originally consisted of eleven bays with the entrance at the center of the building. However, for some unknown reason, the construction fell short, most probably due to patrician funding before construction began.[24] The palazzo had been completed with only seven bays, with the entrance door set in an unusually placed, almost far left with one bay to it’s side, and with five to its other. So, this author assumes that this idea of knowing before the construction began that there had not been enough money to complete as designed, was most probably due to the fact that besides the asymmetry, the palazzo had been finished off perfectly.

Symmetry had been one of the ideals of the Renaissance artist, including the architects. So had studying the ancient Roman villas and palaces. Trissino had even drawn designs of Vitruvius’s Roman house and also tried reconstruct it himself.[25] The Renaissance friendship ideals had been an obligation to elevate and assist the friend in all enterprises, whether for profit or not.[26] Therefore, Trissino not only wanted his friend Palladio to build his palazzo, he sent him to study Roman buildings.[27]

In 1538, after taking a tour to Rome for Ancient Roman and early Renaissance works, Palladio undertook his first formal commission. This had been as the principal architect at Villa Godi. Not until 1560 did the great architect received his first commission within Venice, even though he had been designing villas outside the area for the past decade.[28] He started by copying other people’s survey drawings of ancient Roman buildings, then redrew them to his specifications. He, like many others, believed that the Romans had superior architecture.[29]

Palladio also had his own drawings of Roman and Byzantine buildings that he used. He created Four Books on Architecture that included many, many illustrations of ancient works. He “began to measure all their parts minutely and with the greatest care” and included each detail within his books.[30] His copious notes had been fundamental to his success. But it was his ability to innovate his designs to match the local that had been his real genius.

Another brilliant point was that Palladio used the idea of orthogonal projection for his villas and palazzos. This idea of moving right angles into different positions created an easier way to transform the ideal Roman concrete into a building of bricks.[31] Indeed, this may have been what made Palladio into a god among amateurs. Perhaps the other architects were just not able to understand the idea of the orthographic. So, it was only Palladio that had been able to grasp the idea of symmetry by lessoning, which would have been a geometry equation. Being a stonemason and cutting right angles for many years, may have allowed Palladio the understanding that the other architects of his day, with the exception of Sanmicheli, could not.

            Another point that Palladio had noticed was that the Romans had been flexible. He noted in his books that they had different types of ornaments, variations in function, design, and scheme. He had been novel in this idea, in fact. Serlio and Vignola had noted that the Romans had rules for their architecture.[32] With his greater study of flexibility of the Roman architecture, Palladio would have had another added advantage in being able to transform palazzos and loggias from the original drawn design into a resembled reality because of its surroundings.

Loggias had been the direct descendents of the medieval castle but had little martial use by the sixteenth century.[33] Having prominent windows on the ground floor was one point that changed the ideal from warfare to sumptuousness. Palladio understood this when he designed Villa Trissino at Cricoli.[34] He designed a Roman townhouse in between two medieval building towers. He even used a medieval ruin as the base of one of his designs, Villa Badoer.[35] Both villas showed Palladios individual style and ability to progress through different location requirements.

Villa Pisani had its origins in two different Palladio designs. Also, the patron had decided to enlarge the palazzo after construction had begun. Palladio was able to change the design of the building without having to even create a new drawing. The loggia had been jettisoned, and the roofline was changed at a very late stage.[36] The other architects most probably would have added additions without enlarging the rooms, like Palladio had.

Also, the constructed villa had treated the house as a “nucleus” for the other buildings. Palladio used the streets to the benefit of the palazzo, which had never been done before. He created bridges over the streets to the servant’s wings in an aesthetically pleasing manner.[37] The villa had been built very close to the town moat to accommodate the house site. While this may at times not have had the best aroma, this site arrangement had certainly been accommodating to reaching the highest concession possible.[38] This author does not believe that any of the other architects would have had the insight to have been able to adjust their original plans to the degree that Palladio had.

Palladio had decades of experience as a stonemason. With this time he had working knowledge of right angles. This background was just one reason that he had surpassed the other architects of the Renaissance. He had been exposed to other learning through Trissino, and had studied Roman architecture to an extent that had not been seen before. Palladio discovered that the Romans had been very adaptable, while the other designers were not able to see that point. Bramante, Raphael, Michelangelo, and even Sanmicheli, were unable to change a design once it had been set to paper. It was only the great Palladio that had been able to change the building to suit the environment on which the great villa palazzos had stood.


 Boucher, Bruce. Andrea Palladio: The Architect in his Time. New York: Abbeville Press,


Frommel, Christoph Luitpold. The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. London: Thames

& Hudson Ltd., 2007.

 Gable, C. I.  “Andrea Palladio [Andrea di Pietro della Gondola]”., 1999. (accessed June 15, 2012).

 Hines, Charles and Irena Murray. Palladio and his Legacy: A Transatlantic Journey.

Pittsburgh, PA: The Heinz Architectural Center, Carnegie Museum of Art, 2011.

 Honour, Hugh and John Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, New

Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1986

 Kent, Dale. Friendship, Love, and Trust in Renaissance Florence. (Cambridge: Harvard

University Press, 2009
Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History, Vol. 1, 13th Ed. Boston,

MA: Thomson Higher Education, 2009.
Palladio, Andrea. “The First Book on Architecture”  1570 quoted in Four Books on

Architecture. (Cambridge, MA: MIT University Press, 1997.), 5. (accessed July 22, 2012).
Petrarch, Francis. “To Posterity” Ca. 1371-1372. in “Familiar Letters” Hanover Historical

Texts Project. 2000. (accessed June 29, 2012).
Ruehring, Lauren Mitchell . “Michelangelo Buildings.” Howstuffworks. 2012. (accessed July 20, 2012).

Originally written for class at American Military University.

[1]Christoph Luitpold Frommel, The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance. (London: Thames
& Hudson Ltd., 2007). 201.
[2] C. I. Gable.  “Andrea Palladio [Andrea di Pietro della Gondola]”., 1999. (accessed June 15, 2012).
[3]  Frommel.
[4] Gable. 
[5]  Frommel.
6. Ibid.
7. Vetruvius in Frommel.
8.Frommel, 9.
[6] Ibid.
[7] Fred S. Kleiner, Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History, Vol. 1, 13th Ed. (Boston, MA: Thomson Higher Education, 2009.), 541.
[8] Ibid, 542.
[9] Gary Grimm. Personal communication with author. June 15, 2012. Forum reply to author  “Humanism According to Petrarch”.  June 14. 2012. American Military University. (accessed July 20, 2012).
[10] Vetruvius in Frommel.
[11] Frommel, 9.
[12] Ibid.
[13] Hugh Honour and John Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History, 2nd ed.. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1986.), 288, 289, 333.
[14] Ibid, 343-344; Mark Girouard, Life in the English Country House. (London: Yale University Press, 1978), 68.
[15] Honour, 343.
[16] Frommel, 89.
[17] Ibid, 52.
[18] Girouard, 69.
[19] Frommel, 20.
[20] Ibid, 114-115.
[21] Lauren Mitchell Ruehring. “Michelangelo Buildings.” Howstuffworks. 2012. (accessed July 20, 2012).
[22] Ibid.
[23] Ibid.
[24] Frommel, 158-159.
[25] Ibid, 201.
[26]  Dale Kent. Friendship, Love, and Trust in Renaissance Florence. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.), 32.
[27] Charles Hines and Irena Murray. Palladio and his Legacy: A Transatlantic Journey.
(Pittsburgh, PA: The Heinz Architectural Center, Carnegie Museum of Art, 2011.), 11.
[28] Frommel, 9.
[29] Hines.
[30] Andrea Palladio. “The First Book on Architecture”  1570 quoted in Four Books on Architecture. (Cambridge, MA: MIT University Press, 1997.), 5. (accessed July 22, 2012).
[31] Hines.
[32] Ibid.
[33] Girouard.
[34] Bruce Boucher. Andrea Palladio: The Architect in his Time. (New York: Abbeville Press,
1998.), 19.
[35] Ibid, 127.
[36] Ibid, 76.
[37] Ibid, 117.
[38] Ibid, 118.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012


So, I'm just waiting for grades for two of my papers and then I will post them. I do not post them until after my grade has been finalized, for, I think, obvious reasons.

The two coming will be a paper on Andrea Palladio. Palladio was an architect in the renaissance. Basically, in my opinion, almost all of the later Greek and Roman revival houses were actually Palladian Revivals. Very dynamic!

The other is my Senior Seminar paper on Primogeniture. This is a pretty long paper, 25ish pages. So, I'll upload that in three sections to make it easier to read. This was how I wrote it anyways, so it should not be any type of difficulty. Primogeniture was the law where the property in its entirety went to the eldest son.

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Point of Interest of the Venus

So, the paper posted yesterday on the Venus of Urbino was chosen, obviously I should think, for my Ren class. The point of the paper, given by the instructor, was to choose a painting of the Renaissance period that showed humanist positions. I chose this painting because it does show, very much so in fact, humanist tendencies. However, there were two other reasons that I chose it....

1. So incredibly beautiful!
2. You can see her house... palazzo!

Take a look at the bedding, The mattress is covered in one material and then there is the fabulously white sheets that are rumpled. Do you think that they are Egyptian cotton? hmmmmm....

Then there is the tiled floor. I should think that it is obvious that this is two colored marble that had been polished to a shine!

The pillars are there, as well as the boxes that housed Venus' trousseau.

What I also find interesting is the drape behind Venus. What do you think the reasons that this existed are? I am guessing that they are the same reasons that we use beautiful drapery on our windows today. Beauty, accentuation, intimacy, privacy, and stopping a draft.

Hope you enjoy it....


Friday, July 20, 2012

Venus of Urbino by Titian

Taylor Speer-Sims
June 27, 2012

                                                            The Beauteous Venus

The Italian Renaissance had a great amount of artists come to the forefront. The rebirth of styles of the ancient world became very popular. It was the humanist painters that brought the old world into new light. It was not just the style of the paintings, but the artist too, that created the humanist style. A painter’s education, interest, and subject was also important for this particular fashion. Beautiful work for itself became popular. Humanist beauty was the key to Renaissance art, and especially Titian’s work Venus of Urbino.
The Venus of Urbino was a beauteous work completed in 1538 by the master artist Titian.[1] Titian was born Tiziano Vecelli in Venice, Italy sometime around the year 1485. Titian trained under the founder of the Venetian School of Painting, Giovanni Bellini. But it was under the tutelage of Giorgione between the years of 1506 and 1508 that he found his direction. Titian not only acted as painter’s assistant to Giorgione, but at the death of the master, the pupil took over the unfinished paintings and frescoes. Thus finding himself at the head of an art house, he had his first commission in 1511 for three frescoes in Padua.[2]

              Padua was not the only location where Titian created beautiful paintings. He created

paintings of oil and canvas to a degree that no one else had at that time in history.[3] Titian created

religious, mythological and portraits more vivid and higher in movement than any of his

predecessors. He found that when his old master, Bellini, died, he was created the official painter to

the Republic of Venice. Reasoning behind this official position was not just his because of his

amazing talent, but also because he had broken free of his masters styling, and had created a style

of his own. The artist’s apparent pleasure in forms in vivacious color against darker backgrounds

endeared him to his people. Then later, with the death of his wife, his mood changed to a more

restrained and meditative style the elevated the style of related color palettes.[4]

               Most painters of the Renaissance had been considered working in a type of mechanical

position because they worked with their hands. The Archbishop of Genoa used the words of Carisius

to put their position in perspective, “And then thereto, he said: …, thou art nothing more noble, ne

more mighty than be thy painters.”[5] The un-noble profession of most painters was not that of

Titian, who later did become ennobled. When Titian met Charles V of Bolgna, he painted a portrait

of the ruler that would become one of the most prized, as well as famous, of the king. Titian then

received the title of Court Painter and was given a noble tile of Count Palatine and Knight of the

Golden Spur.  All of this was of great value because his paintings became more sought after, and his

prices soared. It was at this time that he painted the painting the Venus of Urbino.[6] Titian was at the

 height of his glory at the time of this great commission.[7]
              It was the Duke of Urbino that had requested the commission of Titian for a beautiful

nude. The original title of the painting was lost to time. However, the general belief that the title was

merely Nude and was titled later after the Venus De Milo because of the beauty of the subject of the

painting. The addition of Urbino was due to the location of Duke’s palace. The presumption of the

title bears the idea of great, idealized, beauty. The real identity of the painting’s subject has also been

lost to time. Only the fact that the Duke requested a nude painting for his rooms of his palazzo has

            Requisitions of art works was a very important form of having a reliable source of income

for the humanist painters of the Renaissance. This was not new, nor was it uncommon. Nor was the

idea of nudity unusual for these painters either. Humanist painters were just as the humanist writers

in that they used their art to glorify God.[9] They also wanted to make their artwork as true to nature

as possible, or even better. They wanted to create a more idealized version of the human form.[10]

While some believed that these paintings should be banished because of they created temptations of

 the flesh, others believed that they should not only continue, but were in fact allegorical to God’s


            This was the background for Titian and his painting of the nude woman that would later be

described as Venus. Titian had the training of a master that the humanist favored. He painted

religious paintings for the glory of God. And, Titian created the painting of Venus of Urbino where

many other humanist beliefs were included for the viewer to behold. Titian included some of the most

 basic ideas of humanist paintings, such as the life-like body, natural scenery, perspective, and had a

 strong concern for human interests, as well as interest in the Roman and Greek Empires.[12]
         The Venus of Urbino gives these qualities that completely indicated the humanist side of

Titian. The main focus of the painting was the woman, or Venus, who was obviously a lady of means

due to her high quality housing, staff and puppy. The scenery, while not outdoors, showed the natural

side of a noble woman       in her own bedchamber. Venus was painted in an open pose, lying on her

bed, with her two servants in the background. All of this was in an open room with a large courtyard

style window that gave a glimpse of the outdoors.[13]
         The background of blue sky of either dawn or dusk showed that Titian wanted to give the

impression that the lady could either be lying down to bed, or beginning her day. This would have

been left up to the viewer, which would have been the Duke of Urbino. The tree, which was another

indicator of humanist painting, was just on the other side of the Grecian column of the room’s

window. Titian even painted a little topiary to give the room more elegance, which was another point

of the style of painting.[14]

            What was so incredibly real about this art piece, was the wall panels that were painted with

such amazing detail. He also included tile floors of multiple colors. The two servants were dressed in

rich reds, and bright whites that would have indicated that only the very wealthy would have been

able to afford to have such an incredible staff.[15] Who would have wanted to have their maids

dressed in clothing that would have shown soil so easily? Titian even included Venus’ cassone,

which one of the maids was heavily leaning inside. Cassones were beautifully painted chests of the

Renaissance that usually contained the bride’s trousseau.[16] Was a meaning behind this painting

indicative of marital romance? Due to the multiply included cassones, that could be one possibility.

           Another factor of romance in this humanistic painting was the inviting pose of Venus. She

was lounging on a rumpled bed. Was this due to her lover? She had blushed somewhat as she

leaned over openly, and inviting the viewer into her realm, and possibly her bed. Her hair was styled

as an ancient goddesses would have been, with long golden hair that also had a crown of braided

tresses atop her head.[17]

           She held roses in her right hand, which indicated her fresh beauty and sweetness. With her 

head painted a little smaller than the rest of her body, as well as her blush, Titian may have

confessed a type of insecurity with his subject matter. However, he also showed that Venus was

a fertile woman with the shape of her slightly protruding underbelly. Her fecundity was also

indicative of her left hand covering her pubic region. In fact, this seemed to be the true announcement

of this painting. Due to the central position within the painting, her reproductive availability was

positioned at true center.[18]
         Venus also gave a clue to her status by having her lap dog at the foot of her bed. A lady of

leisure would have been able to have such a dog, which had no other function except to be cuddled

by its owner. There was a silk velvet drape to portion off her bed from the rest of the chamber. The

numerous pillows, and the multiple layers of linen also reveal wealth of the subject.[19] These were

all part of the humanist painters repertoire.[20]

            Humanist painters wanted to include the styles of the ancient world. They wanted to not only

make people more lifelike, but to actually make them into an ideal. The humanist artist studied

behind a master, but also created his own works. He made work ennoble Christ, but he also wanted

to give the painting a sense of elegance. A painter’s background made him who he was, and assisted

with what he painted. But, it was the scene, the subject, and quality of idealized naturalistic life that

made the best of humanist paintings. Titian created the key to Renaissance beautiful art with his

Venus of Urbino.

Burke, Peter. The Italian Renaissance: Culture and Society in Italy. Princeton, NJ:Princeton
           University Press, 1999.
de Voragine, Jacobus. “Here Beginneth the Life of S. Thomas the Apostle.”. 1470. Quoted in
           “Modern History Sourcebook”, Fordham University. Last modified August 1998.                
     (accessed June 27, 2012).
Kleiner, Fred S.  Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History, Vol. 2, 13th Ed. Boston,
             MA: Thomson Higher Education, 2009
Hale, J.R.. Renaissance Europe 1480-1520, 2nd. Ed. (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing,
Honour, Hugh and John Fleming. The Visual Arts: A History, 2nd ed.. Englewood Cliffs, New
            Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1986.
“Humanisn in the Renaissance.”  In “The Renaissance Connection.”, Allentown Art Museum. 
           n.d. (accessed June 27, 2012).
“Titian” WebMuseum, Paris. (last modified October 2002). (accessed June 27, 2012).

Originally written for class at American Military University.

[1] Titian, Venus of Urbino (1538, Oil on Canvas, 3’ 11” x 5’ 5”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence) in Fred S. Kleiner, Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: A Global History, Vol. 2, 13th Ed. (Boston, MA: Thomson Higher Education, 2009.), 610.
[2] “Titian” WebMuseum, Paris. (last modified October 2002). (accessed June 27, 2012).
[3] Hugh Honour and John Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History, 2nd ed.. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1986.), 391.
[4] “Titian”.
[5] Jacobus de Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa, “Here Beginneth the Life of S. Thomas the Apostle.”. 1470. Quoted in “Modern History Sourcebook”, Fordham University. Last modified August 1998.  (accessed June 27, 2012).
[6] Ibid.
[7] Kleiner, 610.
[8] Ibid.
[9] J.R. Hale. Renaissance Europe 1480-1520, 2nd. Ed. (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2000), 229.
[10] Peter Burke. The Italian Renaissance: Culture and Society in Italy. (Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press, 1999.), 147.
[11] Ibid, 141.
[12] “Humanisn in the Renaissance.”  In “The Renaissance Connection.”, Allentown Art Museum.  n.d. (accessed June 27, 2012).
[13] Titian, Venus of Urbino.
[14] Ibid.
[15] Ibid.
[16] Burke, 141.
[17] Titian, Venus of Urbino.

[18] Ibid.
[19] Ibid.
[20] “Humanisn in the Renaissance.” 

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